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Lead Hazards Safety Training



Prevent lead intoxication and
related injuries during the use, handling, removal, and melting of materials containing lead.

What is Lead
Lead is metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds and organic lead soaps.
Some of the properties of lead that make it a useful structural material are: Low melting point Very abundant, High molecular weight, High density, Very malleable (easy to shape).
How Lead Gets into the Body
-Inhalation (breathing)
-Ingestion (by mouth)
-Lead is usually not absorbed through the skin
-Once lead enters the body, it enters your bloodstream and is circulated throughout your body.
-This lead then becomes stored in various organs of the body.
-If you continue to be exposed to lead, you will begin to store more than your body can get rid of and you will begin to suffer the symptoms of lead    poisoning.

Common uses for Lead

Batteries                              Ballast
Weights                                Radiation shielding
Roof flashings                    Paint filler
Pipe joints                            Acoustic insulation
Ammunition                        Solder
Rubber anti-oxidant       Cable shielding

   Lead Exposure Operations
-Lead and Babbitt melting and casting
-Ballast handling
-Grinding, sanding material that contains lead
-Soldering with torches
-Lead-acid battery reclaiming
-Machining lead
-Contact with contaminated clothing
-Removal of lead-based paints

  Health Hazards
-Lead interferes with the formation of the      hemoglobin in blood and will cause                  anemia.
-Lead causes cellular kidney damage which    leads to kidney failure.
-It can cause reduced sperm count and            decreased fertility.

-Lead can damage the nervous system,      the blood forming organs, kidneys, and    reproductive system. 
-Chronic exposure initially damages the    blood forming and reproductive                  organs and eventually cause peripheral    nerve and central nervous system              damage.


-Lead can pass from mother to infant through the placenta.
Reproductive System Effects
Exposure to lead can have serious effects on the reproductive function of both males and females.

In males, there can be a decrease in sexual drive, impotence, decrease the ability to produce healthy sperm and sterility.

Women may experience menstrual disturbance including Dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), Menorrhagia (abnormally profuse blood flow), and Amenorrhea (abnormal absence or suppression of menstrual discharge.) 
There is a higher frequency of sterility, premature births, spontaneous miscarriages, and stillbirths.

Lead can alter the structure of sperm cells raising the risk of birth defects.

Infants with mothers who had lead poisoning have a higher mortality rate during the first year and suffer from lower birth rates, slower growth, and nervous system disorders.
Exceeding Exposure Limits
If Action Level is exceeded, it is necessary to begin air monitoring, employee training, and medical surveillance.
Any employee known to have been exposed to airborne concentrations exceeding PEL shall be notified in
writing of the exposure as soon as possible, but not later than 5 days after the finding.
Permissible Exposure Limit
The permissible exposure limit (PEL) for an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure to airborne lead is 50 micrograms per cubic meter of air. If an employee is exposed for more than 8 hours in a workday, the PEL shall be determined by the following formula:

PEL= 400 / number of hours worked in a day

Where any employee is exposed to lead above the PEL, but for 30 days or less per year, the employer shall implement engineering controls
to reduce exposures to 200 mg/m3, but thereafter may implement any combination of engineering, work practice, and respiratory controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead to or below 50 mg/m3.
Action Level
The action level (AL) for an 8 hour TWA exposure to airborne lead is 30 microgram/cubic meter of air (without regard to respirator use).

Biological monitoring and medical surveillance shall be initiated when an employee's exposure exceeds the action level for more than 30 days per year.
All personnel who work in areas where the potential exists for lead exposure > the Allowable Limit must receive:
-Initial training upon assignment
-Annual training
The minimum lead hazard training will consist of:
The specific nature of the operations where lead is possible. The purpose, proper selection, fit testing, use, and limitations of respirators and Contents of facilities' compliance plan.

General Workplace Control Practices

We should control lead exposure by limiting employees exposure to lead as much a possible. Here are some ways in which employers can do that:
- Use reduced lead paint coatings
- Only low lead content paint shall be used in in the interior of residential structures or on other surfaces which may pose an ingestion hazard
-  When feasible, the heating of lead and leaded materials shall be minimized through the use of controlled heating or the removal of lead-containing surface coatings prior to heating.
Procedures shall be established to maintain work surfaces as free of lead dust as practical. Lead dust shall be cleaned with HEPA filtered vacuum cleaners.
Wet sweeping and brushing may be used only when vacuuming has been tried and found not to be effective.
Lead-containing scrap, waste, debris, etc. shall be collected, sealed, and labeled in leak-proof containers
Hot work on lead and abrasive lead removal operations shall, to the extent possible, be isolated from other operations.
- To the extent feasible, fixed local exhaust ventilation connected to HEPA filters or other collection systems, approved by the cognizant industrial hygienist, shall be provided at the point of airborne particulate generation.
- Capture velocities shall be high enough to draw in the particulates, and the duct transport velocities shall be high
enough to prevent accumulation of particulates in the
- Clean out points must be provided for periodic maintenance.
- The ventilation systems shall be tested every 3 months and with 5 days of any change which may result in a change of employee exposure.
Test records shall be retained for 50 years.
- The recirculation of HEPA filtered air is not recommended.



Personal Protective Equipment

Exposure to lead can be reduced by the use of personal protective equipment. 

Personnel involved in work where the concentration of lead exceeds the PEL or the possibility of eye or skin irritation exists shall remove the clothing worn to and from work and don protective clothing. Here are some things to remember about PPE and what should be provided:

Protective clothing should be full body, one-piece coveralls supplied and laundered by the employer or a contractor shall be used.

Clothing must be waterproof when the wet lead is handled.

One piece, disposable coverall made of Tyvek or equivalent may also be used.

Durable gloves and head coverings shall be used. Hoods shall extend beyond the collar of the coverall.

Slip-resistant shoe covers or lightweight rubber boots shall be provided.  Disposable shoe covers may also be used.

Face shield, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment shall be provided and used whenever the possibility of eye irritation exists.
-  Full face shields are required if lead aerosols cause eye or skin irritation.

Clean protective clothing shall be provided at least weekly, or daily when the 8 hr TWA concentration exceeds 200 micrograms.

Personnel identified as working in lead hazard areas shall be participants in the command's respiratory management program.

•Personnel engaged in the following shall wear positive-pressure supplied-air respirators:
-Unventilated hot operations, where temperatures are not controlled.
-Melting operations without thermostatic controls.
-Unventilated indoor or outdoor spray painting operations.

  E Light Electric Services, Inc. does not manufacture lead-based products and our employee exposure to lead-based products is limited to paint in older buildings and some anchors for fasteners.  Understanding the risks of lead is the greatest precaution we can take at E Light to help all of us be safe.